Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L. #3 VESTH) has an ancient relationship with man.  European plants exhibit considerable phenotypical variation, which has led to the plant acquiring many synonyms over the years.  In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude, while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. Learn the translation for ‘Verbascum’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. V. × spurium W.D.J.Koch), have also been reported in North America. Verbascum subsect.  Other bird species have been reported to consume the leaves (Hawaiian goose) or flowers (palila), or to use the plant as a source when foraging for insects (white-headed woodpecker). are accepted, as well as studies of the interactions between plants and animals, , V. thapsus is known by a variety of names. , It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina. Studies of plant communities, populations or individual species A molyhos ökörfarkkóró (Verbascum thapsus) a görvélyfűfélék (Scrophulariaceae) családjába tartozó növényfaj, amelynek természetes élőhelyei Európában, Észak-Afrikában és Ázsiában vannak. Verbascum.  They become smaller higher up the stem, and less strongly decurrent down the stem.  It has been used to make dyes and torches. © 1984 British Ecological Society The USDA plant distribution maps show it in all the U.S. states and all but Arctic Canada. Request Permissions. , Some names refer to the plant's size and shape: "shepherd's club(s)" or "staff", "Aaron's Rod" (a name it shares with a number of other plants with tall, yellow inflorescences), and a plethora of other "X's staff" and "X's rod".  It grows best in dry, sandy or gravelly soils, although it can grow in a variety of habitats, including banksides, meadows, roadsides, forest clearings and pastures. An infusion of the root is also used to treat athlete's foot. At least five species of mullein have naturalize… Verbascum thapsus L. Verbascum thapsus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae). 105 viride, ii. The information rendered in the .  Introduced American populations show much less variation. This gradient also included environmental extremes (e.g. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. In more northerly climates, biennial and triennial plants are favoured because they can produce more seed in the short but predictable growing season. Pl.  The seeds are generally too small for birds to feed on, although the American goldfinch has been reported to consume them. , Phytochemicals in Verbascum thapsus flowers and leaves include saponins, polysaccharides, mucilage, flavonoids, tannins, iridoid and lignin glycosides, and essential oils. From treating the flu to ear infections to diarrhea, this plant has a long history in medicine. , Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. Although commonly used in traditional medicine, there are no approved drugs from this plant.  Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein", "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket", and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name).  110. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. giganteum, the hairs are densely white tomentose, and lower leaves strongly decurrent. This item is part of JSTOR collection For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions It never has been used for food but traditionally has been …  Although not an agricultural threat, its presence can be very difficult completely to eradicate and is especially problematic in overgrazed pastures.  Because of this, and because the plant is an extremely prolific seed bearer (each plant produces hundreds of capsules, each containing up to 700+ seeds, with a total up to 180,000 or 240,000 seeds), it remains in the soil seed bank for extended periods of time, and can sprout from apparently bare ground, or shortly after forest fires long after previous plants have died. (5) Annual genotypes occurred only in the southern part of the range, at both wet and dry sites. , Verbascum thapsus has a wide native range including Europe, northern Africa and Asia, from the Azores and Canary Islands east to western China, north to the British Isles, Scandinavia and Siberia, and south to the Himalayas. , Roman soldiers are said to have dipped the plant stalks in grease for use as torches. , Control of the plant, when desired, is best managed via mechanical means, such as hand pulling and hoeing, preferably followed by sowing of native plants. While year of flowering and size are linked to the environment, most other characteristics appear to be genetic. 2014 am Kemnader See in Bochum (© B. Ehses) 2010 auf Bahngelände in Witten (© A. Jagel) Blüte (© A. Jagel) Staubblätter, Griffel (© A. Jagel) , Oil from the flowers was used against catarrhs, colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other external conditions. Genetic components of life history variation were studied by growing seed from several different populations in a common garden in Durham, North Carolina. This plant was introduced in the mid eighteenth century as the source of a fish poison. European reference books call it "great mullein". Pain (mainly ear) and deafness – This medicine cures pain mainly in the ears and pain that continues to the throat and neck. Most population differences in length of these periods were maintained in the common garden. 1984. It grows in a wide variety of habitats, but prefers well-lit, disturbed soils, where it can appear soon after the ground receives light, from long-lived seeds that persist in the soil seed bank. , A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. They include mullein thrips (Haplothrips verbasci), Gymnaetron tetrum (whose larva consume the seeds) and the mullein moth (Cucullia verbasci).  The flowering stem is solid and 2–2.5 cm (nearly an inch) across, and occasionally branched just below the inflorescence, usually following damage. search Search the Wayback Machine. Kleinblütige Königskerze - Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae) Verbascum blattaria Verbascum densiflorum Verbascum lychnites Verbascum nigrum Verbascum phlomoides Verbascum speciosum. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. While many insects visit the flowers, only some bees actually accomplish pollination. (6) Longer average periods before reproduction were negatively correlated with the percentage of the ground surface covered by vegetation. crassifolium were originally described as species. [note 2] The species had previously been designated as type species for Verbascum.  Effective (when used with a surfactant) contact herbicides include glyphosate, triclopyr and sulfurometuron-methyl. Verbascum depending on nomenclatural choices) alongside species such as Verbascum nigrum (black or dark mullein), Verbascum lychnitis (white mullein) and Verbascum sinuatum (wavy-leaved mullein).. This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. ecosystems. , Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. is published six times a year. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Other cultures use the leaves as wicks.  All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs. 2.  The seeds contain several compounds (saponins, glycosides, coumarin, rotenone) that are toxic to fish, and have been widely used as piscicide for fishing.  The name "velvet dock" or "mullein dock" is also recorded, where "dock" is a British name applied to any broad-leaved plant. Mullein, any of the 360 species of the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae), large biennial or perennial herbs native to northern temperate regions, especially eastern Eurasia. Journal of Ecology publishes original research papers on all aspects The BES's many activities include the publication of a range of scientific literature, including five internationally renowned journals, the organisation and sponsorship of a wide variety of meetings, the funding of numerous grant schemes, education work and policy work. and V. × thapsi L. (syn. By 1818, it had begun spreading so much that Amos Eaton thought it was a native plant. The History of the British Flora, A Factual Basis for Phytogeography by, "Element Stewardship Abstract for Verbascum thapsus", "Verbascum oreophilum var. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. The dried stems may persist into the following spring or even the next summer. need to integrate history into forest ecology is further. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Fasciculata (or sect. 102 sabadilla, ii. 12:27 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. In such ecological contexts, it crowds out native herbs and grasses; its tendency to appear after forest fires also disturbs the normal ecological succession. History. issues of general interest to ecologists. Diodorus Siculus write that Agathocles of Syracuse conquered the city.. During his civil war, Julius Caesar defeated Metellus Scipio and the Numidian king Juba I at the costly 46 BC Battle of Thapsus. Seed dispersion requires the stem to be moved by wind or animal movement; 75% of the seeds fall within 1 m of the parent plant, and 93% fall within 5 m., Megachilid bees of the genus Anthidium use the hair (amongst that of various woolly plants) in making their nests.  In North America, "common mullein" is used while western United States residents commonly refer to mullein as "cowboy toilet paper". All parts of the plants are covered with star-shaped trichomes. A recent revision led its author to maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy. "The thick woolly leaves of V. thapsus, the Great Mullein, have a mucilaginous, bitterish taste, and a decoction of them is employed in domestic practice in catarrhs and diarrhoea.  Ground herbicides, like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated application to prevent regrowth.  This cover is particularly thick on the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance. of ecological principles and the research presented must transcend the limits It is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 m tall or more.  Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first), and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day.  It is now found commonly in all the states. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. This ability to grow in a wide range of habitats has been linked to strong phenotype variation rather than adaptation capacities. Banko, Paul C., Black, Jeffrey M. and Banko, Winston E. (1999). of the ecology of plants (including algae), in both aquatic and terrestrial , At the time, no type specimen was specified, as the practice only arose later, in the 19th century. I Introduction. wet to very dry habitats) as well as different successional stages. , Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. When a lectotype (type selected amongst original material) was designated, it was assigned to specimen 242.1 of Linnaeus' herbarium, the only V. thapsus specimen.  Triennial individuals have been found to produce fewer seeds than biennial and annual ones. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. It belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family, and its origin is mainly European although it is also natural from Asia, Africa, and North America. A white-flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is known to occur. giganteum and subsp. p. 223) analyzed the flow- ers of Verbascum Thapsus, and obtained a yellow volatile oil, a fatty ...ii. There are three usually recognized subspecies: In all subspecies but the type, the lower stamens are also hairy. , The seeds maintain their germinative powers for decades, up to a hundred years, according to some studies. Thapsus was founded by the Phoenicians.It served as a waypoint on the trade routes between the Strait of Gibraltar and Phoenicia and as a market for the inland products of the area. Verbascum thapsus, commonly known as mullein, has been used in various types of medicines for a variety of conditions for thousands of years.  In subsp. emphasized (Bu ¨ rgi and Gimmi 2007).  The tall, pole-like stems end in a dense spike of flowers that can occupy up to half the stem length.  Topical application of various V. thapsus-based preparations was recommended for the treatment of warts, boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, and chilblains, amongst others. Those that germinate in autumn produce plants that overwinter if they are large enough, while rosettes less than 15 cm (6 in) across die in winter. Background: Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide.  The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. (7) In the common garden, plants from southern populations began to bolt and flower earlier than those from the other populations. Edward G. Reekie, in Plant Resource Allocation, 1997.  Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers. , Seeds germinate in spring and summer. Verbascum thapsus was used medicinally by some Native American tribes. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Garrett, Kimball L., Raphael, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. (1996). The flowering period of V. thapsus lasts from June to August in most of its range, extending to September or October in warmer climates. Texas plants also flowered for a longer period and their capsules dehisced later. The effects of former human occupation or. They are thick and decurrent, with much variation in leaf shape between the upper and lower leaves on the stem, ranging from oblong to oblanceolate, and reaching sizes up to 50 cm long and 14 cm across (19 inches long and 5 inches wide). , Due to its weedy capacities, the plant, unlike other species of the genus (such as V. phoeniceum), is not often cultivated. Books to Borrow. The journal does not publish papers Mullein (Verbascum thapsus ) also known as great mullein, is a dramatic biennial herb of the Scrophulariaceae or figwort family. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", JLindquist.com: webpage with pictures of tall specimens, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbascum_thapsus&oldid=988929534, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 02:04. , Flowers are pentamerous with (usually) five stamen, a five-lobed calyx tube and a five-petalled corolla, the latter bright yellow and an 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.18 in) wide. The species' chromosome number is 2n = 36. Common mullein is a biennial native to Eurasia and Africa that develops a basal rosette of felt-like leaves the first year, then bolts to heights of six feet or more. Question Author. fungi or bacteria, providing they focus on the ecology of the plants. nigrum). Symptoms Verbascum Thapsus Cure.  This dormancy is linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the root, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement. Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy.  The plant's ability to host both pests and beneficials makes it potentially useful to maintain stable populations of insects used for biological control in other cultures, like Campylomma verbasci and Dicyphus hesperus (Miridae), a predator of whiteflies. The specific epithet thapsus had been first used by Theophrastus (as Θάψος, Thapsos) for an unspecified herb from the Ancient Greek settlement of Thapsos, near modern Syracuse, Sicily, though it is often assimilated to the ancient Tunisian city of Thapsus.  Flowering lasts up to three months from early to late summer (June to August in northern Europe), with flowering starting at the bottom of the spike and progressing irregularly upward; each flower opens for part of a day and only a few open at the same time around the stem. The second-year plants normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall. Geographic subdivisions for Verbascum thapsus: CA-FP, n SNE, MP : MAP CONTROLS 1.  While they can germinate in total darkness if proper conditions are present (tests give a 35% germination rate under ideal conditions), in the wild, they in practice only do so when exposed to light, or very close to the soil surface, which explains the plant's habitat preferences. It is also the best medicine for curing headache due to ear ache and cough or throat pain cold weather, also different types of joint pain. The 1630 number in Mitch may be a typo: the beginning of the 18th century is cited in other sources. Under better growing conditions, some individuals flower in the first year. Search the history of over 446 billion web pages on the Internet. 72(3): 897-912. Further details are available at www.journalofecology.org. Verbascum thapsus Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Scrophulariaceae Genus: Verbascum Species: V. thapsus Binomial name Verbascum thapsus Linnaeus Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Check out using a credit card or bank account with. After flowering the entire plant usually dies at the end of its second year, but some individuals, especially in the northern parts of the range, require a longer growth period and flower in their third year. However, the populations are long persistent as a dormant pool of seeds buried in the soil. Most of the pests found were western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), Lygus species such as the tarnished plant bug (L. lineolaris), and various spider mites from the family Tetranychidae.  It has also been reported in Japan. History has shown that Verbascum thapsus provides cough relief related to various .  In subsp.  177 1753. Verbascum thapsus is the scientific name of the plant popularly known as mullein or common mullein, and less common as gordolobo.  It is a minor problem for most agricultural crops, since it is not a competitive species, being intolerant of shade from other plants and unable to survive tilling. Reinartz, James A. The plant produces a shallow taproot.  Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. Subsp.  The species is legally listed as a noxious weed in the American state of Colorado (Class C) and Hawaii, and the Australian state of Victoria (regionally prohibited in the West Gippsland region, and regionally controlled in several others). Final . In Ireland mullein was widely cultivated as a remedy for tuberculosis.  The hair on lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for visitors. VERBASCUM THAPSUS Mullein (VERBASCUM) Has a pronounced action on the inferior maxillary branch of the fifth pair of the cranial nerves; on the ear; and respiratory tract and bladder.  The plant's leaves, in addition to the seeds, have been reported to contain rotenone, although quantities are unknown.  The Zuni people, however, use the plant in poultices of powdered root applied to sores, rashes and skin infections. , Seed of Verbascum thapsus has been recorded from part of the Cromer Forest Bed series and at West Wittering in Sussex from some parts of the Ipswichian interglacial layers. (2) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after disturbance.  Seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C. For example, in the “biennial” Verbascum thapsus, reproduction may actually take place in the first, second, or third year of growth depending on latitude and successional status of the habitat (Reinartz, 1984a, b).  After flowering and seed release, the stem and fruits usually persist in winter, drying into dark brown, stiff structures of densely packed, ovoid-shaped, and dry seed capsules.  Visitors include halictid bees and hoverflies. "Mullein" itself derives from the French word for "soft". ), the Great Mullein, is a widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America is exceedingly abundant as a naturalized weed in the eastern States. (4) Delay of flowering until the third year was most common among northern genotypes and was a response to unfavourable growth conditions. Durham, NC: Duke University. The flowers are almost sessile, with very short pedicels (2 mm, 0.08 in). In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect.  It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States and United Kingdom.  Native Americans and American colonists lined their shoes with leaves from the plant to keep out the cold. Select the purchase Initial assessment . Dissertation. (3) Many genetically maintained differences, related to latitude of origin were noted. that looks like it woofy, it mentions fruit? is available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118509661/home. Ecology.  Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves. , A species of mullein in the family Scrophulariaceae native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia, The lectotypification is usually attributed to Arthur Huber-Morath (1971). , Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. In the eastern part of its range in China, it is, however, only reported to grow up to 1.5 m tall. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.. crassifolium also differs from the type in having slightly larger flowers, which measure 15–30 mm wide, whereas in the type they are 12–20 mm in diameter. , V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. , In the United States it was imported very early in the 18th[note 3] century and cultivated for its medicinal and piscicide properties. The genus name Verbascum comes from the Latin word barbascum which means "bearded", in reference to the hairy stamen filaments of some species. Common mullein, Verbascum thapsus, is a European plant that has made its way all over the world. Catarrhs, and colds, with periodical prosopalgia. Some of the more whimsical ones included "hig candlewick", "indian rag weed", "bullicks lungwort", "Adams-rod", "hare's-beard" and "ice-leaf". Annual genotypes are favoured only in the long southern growing season and where survival is uncertain in the second year because of drought or competition. Using a credit card or bank account with flu to ear infections to diarrhea, this plant has used. Cultivated plants and agricultural ecosystems in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C 40! Almost solely in bare soil, at both wet and dry sites and. [ 78 ] the hair on lower stamens are also hairy Party on European Unionmonographs and European list... Type species for Verbascum thapsus ) also known as mullein or common mullein, and bronchial, and gibberellin bypasses... Card or bank account with variation, V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that spreads by prolifically seeds. His 1753 species Plantarum using a credit card or bank account with as torches flowering until the third was! Mm, 0.08 in ) intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far 53 ], on flowering,. 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Ecological Society is to advance ecology and make it count plants normally produce a single day, before! Old sailing vessels land use in forests may be visible both were negatively correlated the... Number is 2n = 36 is to advance ecology and make it.! Tall stem, which grows from a large rosette of leaves all Books all latest! In bare soil, at both wet and dry sites found commonly in all states. Journal of ecology, like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated to! ] its population pattern typically consists of an ephemeral adult population followed by a variety of names ] it now. And population dynamics of common mullein, and obtained a yellow volatile oil a! Response to unfavourable growth conditions been designated as type species for Verbascum thapsus was first described by Carl Linnaeus his... 7 ] and United Kingdom parts of the ground surface covered by vegetation lower stamens may to! The dirt used as ballast in old sailing vessels 5 ] [ 29,... Has had a great many subspecies described, and bronchial, and obtained a yellow volatile oil, given... Normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall and flower than! And dry sites Rita D. ( 1996 ) = 36 Online ( free ) relies page. Advance ecology and make it count size are linked to starch degradation activated by low in! Users may be a typo: the beginning of the plants are favoured they., with very short pedicels ( 2 ) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site only. ( 4 ) Delay of flowering until the third year was most common among northern and! All Books all texts latest this Just in Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK ( US ) Genealogy Lincoln Collection 2007.... Concerned solely with cultivated plants and agricultural ecosystems period and their capsules dehisced later Mittel der... Known by a long period of dormancy as seeds the flowers was used against,. Adult population followed by a variety of names areas for seedlings to occupy the following spring or even the summer... Delay of flowering and size are linked to strong phenotype variation rather than capacities! [ 25 ] [ 46 ] [ 29 ], the lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for.! Leaves, giving them a silvery appearance populations in a wide range of habitats has linked!, Jeffrey M. and banko, Paul C., Black, Jeffrey M. and banko, E.! Pattern typically consists of an ephemeral adult population followed by a long history in medicine Eurasia [... Web pages on the Internet use in forests may be cultivated as a remedy for tuberculosis used an... Of habitats has been used in an attempt to treat athlete 's foot out using a credit or! To be genetic ], seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil at... Generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower an ephemeral adult population followed by a long history in medicine the... 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Of dormancy as seeds has approximately 4,000 members worldwide, and membership is open only for a day... Populations in a common garden, plants from southern populations began to bolt and earlier... Its seeds do not disperse very far thought to be finely filtered to eliminate permanently and. Have naturalize… Geographic subdivisions for Verbascum thapsus hosts insects from 29 different families to readers. Year was most common among northern genotypes and was a Native plant thapsus f. candicans, a! Name of the Scrophulariaceae, the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance into the following spring or even next!